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Different types of tools exist for the mobilisation of quality linked to the origin of various products: Registered and non-registered protected geographic indications GIs , as specific intellectual property IP instruments or marks, as well as other forms of mobilisation of the origin. In ACP countries, regional institutions are important platforms that play a major role in regulating IP.

However, a GI may exist without registration or without seeking registration, unless the name or product is considered generic. In certain situations, a collective mark or certification mark is the most effective legal protection for a GI. Increasing interest and development of GIs and origin brands. In ACP countries, the number of products with quality linked to the origin is indeed rather high. According to our documentary study, more than of them have already been studied or inventoried: the potential of the mobilisation of the origin in marketing strategies is well ascertained, and seems appropriate in ACP countries.

What is less clear is to which extent the valorisation of quality linked to the origin can boost commercial strategies that pay back small-scale producers fairly. In other words, how such strategies can prevent the remuneration of quality products by consumers being entirely retained by the various intermediaries of the supply chain and the retail sector. Some products are known and their value recognised primarily by local populations, being regional or national. Up-scaling and accessing new markets is most of the time challenging because of the limited resources of small-scale producers but also of other operators all along the value chain.

However, demand for these specific products is growing particularly in urban centres. The stakes are therefore economic increased and better distribution of added value , cultural valorisation of regions and local know-how and related to food security resilience of local agro-ecological systems and import substitutions.

The Kenyan Coffee value chain is characterised by extreme fragmentation at the agricultural level and concentration of power among a few players downstream. As the Kenyan value chain is regulated by the Coffee Act, there is a mandatory traceability and grading system, which is under the supervision of the Coffee Directorate of Kenya CDK. The Kenyan Coffee Act has organised a vertical redistribution of the market price among the stakeholders. Regarding the consequences of and interactions between the GI implementation and these market institutions of pricing, some conclusions can be drawn.

Price stabilisation is a motivation to enter the GI scheme of protection.

Their motivations are to protect against misuses of the Kenyan origin on coffee, and to follow the successful trend started with the GI initiatives of the Coffee of Colombia and Jamaica, and the origin-branding initiatives taken by the Ethiopian Coffee producers. As for export-oriented products, the number of concerned products coffee, tea, cacao, pepper, etc.

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However, several constraints hinder the adoption of such approaches: First of all the size of supply chains and particularly the multitude of stakeholders. Hence, the specific quality loses in importance in the eyes of policy makers. On the benefits side, differences exist between prices of products with quality linked to the origin and those of generics, both for export products and products mainly sold on the domestic market.

These differences appear more significantly in the main target markets of these products. This is clearly the case for coffee, cacao and some spices, such as pepper, on the international markets and vegetable, fruit, cereal and honey on domestic markets. On the costs side, certification costs are not limited to the audit costs charged by certification bodies, but include additionally induced costs. Explanation: The table shows the differences in percentage between the prices paid by consumers for some origin-linked ACP products and similar products that have no link to their place of origin, on their national markets or in the region mentioned.

Geographical indications

Recommendations to governments and public institutions of ACP countries. The first recommendation is to push for a stronger protection of their GIs through the accession to the Lisbon Agreement and the mutual recognition of GIs with the European Union.


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The on-going revision of the Lisbon Agreement is a promising way for achieving better protection of geographical indications at global level. The harmonisation of the protection regimes will contribute significantly to the integration process.

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This can be achieved through a common legal definition of the GI, consistence between the product and its origin guaranteed by recognition procedures and by certification, and the promotion of a common visual logo. Often states favour national GIs putting the focus on the fame of the country satisfying the demand coming from the industry, who seeks first of all generic quality.

The main risks of this approach are heterogeneity in quality and a very weak identity on the market. The candidates will be selected according to their personal on-line application form. Preference will be given to participants who are already taking part of a GI-connected project or are members of the Ministries in charge of GI in their countries. The overall composition of the group will seek a balance in terms of countries, gender age, and type of GI-related professional activities.

Who are we? Back to the list. Higher education Available training E-learning. At the end of the training, the participants will be able to : Implement a GI-related policy or project, meeting the required conditions for an effective contribution to rural development. Apply methods to achieve an inventory of potential GI products.

Apply methods to support the qualification of GI products. Understand the different forms of collective organization for the management of Geographical Indications. Contribute to the marketing of GI products. Besides, they will become aware of : The international rules and institutions that govern the protection of GI, and the current state of international negotiations.

Regional and national rural development policies policies linked to GI.

Croatia Terroirs - Geographical Indications